Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD)

Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) is a general term for illness affecting the heart or blood vessels. It can be associate with damage to arteries in organs such as the brain, heart, kidneys and eyes.

There are 4 main types of CVD which can be affected the people worldwide:

  1. Coronary Heart Disease: It occurs when oxygen-blood circulation is blocked to reach to the heart muscle. The person may experience Angina (chest pain), Heart Attacks (blood flow suddenly stops), Heart Failure (not enough blood flow circulation around the body).
  2. Strokes: The blood supply to part of the brain is cut off which can cause brain damage and possibly death.

The main symptoms of a stroke can be remembered with the word FAST, which stands for:

  • Face – The face may have drooped on one side the person may be unable to smile.
  • Arms – The person may not be able to lift both arms and feel weakness or numbness.
  • Speech – The speech may be garbled, or they may not be able to talk at all.
  • Time – It’s time to call for help immediately if any of these signs or symptoms occur.
  1. Peripheral Arterial Disease: Peripheral arterial disease occurs when there’s a blockage in the arteries to the limbs, usually the legs.

This can cause by:

  • Dull or cramping leg pain
  • Hair loss on the legs and feet
  • Numbness or weakness in the legs
  • Constant ulcers (open sores) on the feet and legs
  1. Aortic disease: Aortic diseases are a group of conditions affecting the aorta. This is the largest blood vessel in the body which carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body.

How can the complications of cardiovascular diseases be reduced?

The World Organisation declares 2 main steps to prevent CVD.

  • Personal Level: Use of prescribed medication particularly for those who are on risk (Aspirin – Beta Blockers)
  • National and International Level: Control policies selling tobacco and alcohol,obesity control, encoruing to take regular sports and children to eat health foods.
cardiovascular disease
Type of Heart Disease

A Holistic Way of treating Cardiovascular Diseases: It can cause a horrific experience to know the news that you may need to have a heart surgery. But also helps that there are many options for the diagnostically which can clarify the questions and anxieties you may have.

Robotic Technology in Cardiovascular Medicine: Interventional cardiology, electrophysiology, endovascular surgery, minimally invasive cardiac surgery and laparoscopic vascular surgery are all fields of where robotic technology is in used. In all robotic systems, the operator directs the robotic arms from a control location. In the field of cardiac surgery, mitral valve repair can be done using robotic technology.

Furthermore, vascular surgeons can perform a variety of robotically assisted operations to treat aortic, visceral, and peripheral artery disease.

The most know robotic technology device is known as DaVinci Machine

Can every surgical operation be done with robotic technology?

  • Coronary Bypass
  • Mitral valve repair and replacement
  • Closing a hole in the heart
  • Fluid discharge from the heart membrane
  • Mass and tumor removal in the heart
  • Aortic valve repair and replacement
  • Pericarditis (pericardium) inflammation and pericarditis surgery

Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases

  • Male Gender
  • High cholesterol
  • Diabetes
  • High blood pressure
  • Smoking
  • Old age


ECG : Using ECG (electrocardiography), information regarding heart rhythm, coronary artery disease and previous heart attacks are obtained.

Exercise ECG : The patient runs on a treadmill and her/his heart function is monitored. The device shows the amount of blood supply to the heart.

Echocardiographic investigation:  Echocardiographic investigation provides information regarding the contraction of the heart muscle and the heart valves. The heart is examined via ultrasound.

Coronary angiography:  Coronary angiography is the radiographic visualization of the coronary vessels. Without coronary angiography, it is impossible to recommend the right treatment or to resort to any interventions.

The Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases

If a patient is diagnosed with coronary artery disease, one of the following three methods (the one that best suits the patient’s condition) is recommended: drug therapy, balloon angioplasty or surgery.

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